300 word discussion response attributes of organized crime amp terrorism cmrj524 richard

Response should be a “minimum” of 300 words each (does not count references and or restating what a classmate said) and include “at least” one properly referenced source each (in accordance with APA 6th edition), for full credit. This can be an opinion, follow-up question, discussion, remark, argument, or agreement about what was stated. Remember to stay professional in your postings. You are free to disagree or agree with something that someone has said, but you must clearly show why. Discuss how you feel their postings relate or are different from your own. Feel free to debate points, and hold a discussion.

Respond to Richard:

Q1 Response: Eight attributes of organized crime may include (1) more than one person acting together to accomplish illegitimate activities for (2) monetary profits, (3) affiliations with people on a short-term or long-term basis who also have a disregard for lawful behavior, (3) skills necessary to accomplish profitable gains, (4) providing goods and services to those who feel in need of such elements, regardless of the means by which they are accumulated (illicit markets), (5) an ability to corrupt business persons and/or politicians to accomplish goals, (6) an ability to blend both legitimate businesses with unlawful business practices, (7) a management process, such as a central leader who branches out to several other active participants (wheel and spokes) who most likely will not know the details of other participants, (8) and lastly a willingness to use force (threats or physical violence) to achieve cooperation or elimination of obstacles (Lyman & Potter, 2015).

Additional important attributes of organized crime today includes an understanding of how globalization, communication, and transportation of goods has altered and expanded the general capabilities of many organized criminal groups (Bjelopera & Finklea, 2012).

Two of the more important attributes for organized crime processes today are high-tech communications and the transportation of goods to many parts of the world. With regards to communication, transferring funds through electronic means has been a boon for money laundering activities and other paperless money transfer activities (Bjelopera & Finklea, 2012). Illegitimate e-businesses avoid the risks involved with shipping large amounts of physical currency by using Internet communication processes; in addition to the mobile capabilities of cell phones. Anonymity via shell companies is another asset to organized groups in that they can hide illegitimate gains in and amongst legitimate business profits, making it difficult for law enforcement to disassociate the two (p. 10). Gambling, a traditional organized crime activity, has also benefited from Internet processing. And lastly, communication via the Internet has allowed for the expansion of fraud techniques such as the advance fee fraud (AFF) operations, whereby exorbitant profits are pledged by spam scammers and others for initial payments from unsuspecting consumers (p. 12).

With regards to the mass expansion of global container shipping, the transportation of goods has provided an excellent way for organized crime groups to ship huge quantities of counterfeit goods, illegal pharmaceuticals, stolen materials, bulk currency, and even human beings (Bjelopera & Finklea, 2012, p. 3). The legitimate and expanding industry of global container shipping has assisted organized crime groups by providing a trafficking means to hide illegitimate goods within the sea of legitimate products, making it difficult for law enforcement to discover the unauthorized materials. As Bjelopera and Finklea (2012) point out, even stolen coveted automobiles have been transported via shipping containers (p. 5).

Transportation of illegal materials has advanced technologically with the creation of semi-submersible vessels, often used to carry contraband from a coastal area out to cargo ships ready to haul the loot to further destinations; as in the case of smuggling large quantities of cocaine from Columbia (Bjelopera and Finklea, 2012, p. 16). This technology has advanced to the point of creating a completely submergible vessel which can stay submerged to a depth of 65 feet, and carry up to “10 tons of cocaine on a 10-day voyage (p. 16).

Q2 Response: Terrorism differs from organized crime in that the latter employs illegal means to gather monetary profits, among other things, whereas the former is looking to influence and/or alter political systems because of philosophical differences between the terror participants and those people in an area they wish to alter politically in some way. Organized crime groups and terrorists are alike in that for their desires to be met, whatever they may be, funding is helpful to advance their relative agendas.

Shelley and Picarelli (2005) point out that one geographic area where terrorist entities (such as Hezbollah) and organized crime envelopes overlap is Cuidad del Este (CDE), Paraguay; part of the “Tri-Border Area of Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina” (p. 60). The Hezbollah organization is well known for its general dislike for Israel. The Middle Eastern terror group performed a couple of bombings in Buenos Aires; one outside the Israeli embassy in 1992 (killing 29) and another at a Jewish-Argentine community center which killed 87 people (p. 60). The staging area for these attacks was CDE. The lack of government control over the Tri-Border Area has allowed both organized crime and terrorist groups to purchase “sophisticated military hardware” and other weapons to help carry out their respective activities. Thousands of vehicles and people travel unchecked between Paraguay and Brazil in the Tri-Border Area, making it possible to transport materials valuable for eventual clandestine operations by whomever (p. 61).

Criminal organized crime gangs use the Tri-Border Area, CDE specifically, for their respective endeavors. Shelley and Picarelli (2005) report that groups like the “Yakuza . . . Colombian, and other Latin American gangs . . . and [especially] Chinese Triads” use the CDE area as a center for some of their activities (p. 61). Terrorist organizations also use the CDE area for some of their operations. These groups include, but are not limited to, Al Qaeda . . . Islamic Jihad, Gamaa Islamia, and FARC (the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) (p. 61). In addition, the terror and organized crime groups overlap in their involvement in drugs and weapons smuggling; both items notorious for their use in raising funds for their endeavors (p. 62). And lastly, organized crime and terrorist factions also share the forged document resources in CDE area to help with their comings and goings (Shelley & Picarelli, 2005, p. 64). Law enforcement operatives in the CDE area believed that several Afghanis they were in search of possessed multiple identification documents which allowed them to easily pass through the CDE area. It is believed that having close relations with corrupt public officials permitted the ease of travel (p. 64).

Both criminal and terrorist groups also take advantage of money laundering capabilities through banks and currency exchange establishments in the CDE area. It is estimated that 12 billion dollars annually is washed through the Tri-Border Area, and that half of all bank transactions involve illicit sources and destinations (Shelley & Picarelli, 2005, p. 65). The corruption in Paraguay was corroborated by a Transparency International study, listing that country as number 129 out of 133 for their Corruption Perceptions Index (p. 65).

In closing, although organized crime groups and terrorist organizations may have different end goals for their use of illicit means and ways (political change versus personal profits), they both overlap in geographic and methods categories; the Tri-Border Area for location, and drugs, weapons, and forged documents to assist in their respective endeavors.

-Richard

References

Bjelopera, J. P. and Finklea, K. M. (2012). Organized crime: An evolving challenge for


U.S. law enforcement.
https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf

Fielding, N. G. (2017). The shaping of covert social networks: Isolating the effects of secrecy. Trends in Organized Crime, 20(1-2), 16-30. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy2.apus.edu/10.1007/s12117…

Lyman, M. D., & Potter, G. W. (2015). Organized crime (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Publishing.

Orttung, R., and Shelley, L. (2005). Linkages between terrorist and organized crime groups in nuclear smuggling. A case study of Chelyabinsk Oblast. http://www.ponarseurasia.org/memo/linkages-between…

Shelley, L. I., & Picarelli, J. T. (2005). Methods and motives: Exploring links between transnational organized crime and international terrorism. Trends in Organized Crime, 9(2), 52-67. doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy2.apus.edu/10.1007/s12117…

LO-1. Examine individual attributes of organized crime
LO-4. Deconstruct how terrorism differs from organized crime

Forum Rubric

Zero Points Beginning Developing Accomplished Exemplary
Substance (Possible 40 points) Zero points: Student failed to respond to the question(s) 25 points: Presentation is unclear; a basic understanding of the topic and issues is not evident; explanation is lacking; segments of the required answer are lacking; sources and supporting facts are not utilized; length requirements may not have been met. 30 points: Student’s initial posting did not meet the length and or source requirements; and/or presentation evidences some confusion concerning topics under discussion; analysis may be lacking and/or elements of the question are not answered; support and references may be lacking. 35 points: Student answered/addressed most aspects of the question/topic posed in the Forum; initial posting met length and source requirements; a basic understanding of relevant concepts/theories is demonstrated; relevant sources were located; minimal or no facts/examples were used in support of presentation. 40 points: Student answered/addressed all aspects of the topic/question posed in the Forum; initial posting met length and source requirements; analysis of concepts and theories clearly demonstrates superior knowledge and a clear understanding of the topic; relevant and scholarly resources were located and used appropriately; facts and examples are used in support of presentation.
Collaboration (Possible 30 points) Zero points: Student filed none of the required replies. 15 points: Student filed only one of the required replies OR filed the required replies but failed to meet length and or source requirements. 25 points: Student filed the minimum number of replies, meeting the length and source requirements and evidencing an understanding of the issues under discussion and the views of colleagues. Student failed to respond to specific queries posed to him by colleagues or by the Instructor. Student did not take initiative in advancing the discussion throughout the week.

30 points: Student filed at least the number of required replies and they met the length and source requirements; the replies were substantive, thoughtful responses and contributed to the discussion; student exceeded minimum requirements by answering all queries posed to him by others and remained present and actively engaged in the discussion throughout the week; student led the discussion by raising complex issues, connecting concepts, and illuminating the discussion with examples.

Timeliness (Possible 10 points)

Zero points: Student filed more than two required postings in an untimely manner.

2 points: Student filed two required postings in an untimely manner.

7 points: Student filed one required posting in an untimely manner.

10 points: Student filed all required postings in a timely manner.

Writing (Possible 10 points)

Zero points: Student failed to respond to the essay question

4 points: Writing contains several grammatical, punctuation, and/or spelling errors. Language lacks clarity or includes some use of jargon and /or conversational tone; sentence structure is awkward.

6 points: Student demonstrates consistent and correct use of the rules of grammar usage, punctuation and spelling, with a few errors; there is room for improvement in writing style and organization.

8 points: Student demonstrates consistent and correct use of the rules of grammar usage, punctuation, and spelling. Language is clear and precise throughout all submissions. Sentences display consistently strong, varied structure and organization is excellent.

10 points: Student demonstrates a quality of writing consistent with scholarly works in the relevant discipline; student is facile in the use of subject-matter vocabulary and terminology consistent with the level of instruction; student applies concepts with ease; writing style and organization are designed to successfully convey the message and the related information to the reader with maximum effect.

Citations (Possible 10 points)

Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references

4 points: Citations of reference sources exist; citations apparently correspond to the correct source but do not enable the reader to locate the source. APA 6thedition format not evident.

6 points: Attempts to cite reference sources are made, but the reader has difficulty finding the sources; attempts to useAPA 6th edition format are evident but poorly executed

8 points: Reference sources are cited as necessary, but some components of the citations are missing and/or APA 6th edition format is faulty in some respects.

10 points: Reference sources relied on by the student are cited appropriately and accurately. No writing of others is left without quotation and/or attribution, as appropriate. APA 6thedition format is used correctly and consistently.