due in 14 hours essay questions

answer them separately, clearly and short ( half a page per question ). using the attachment

  1. Fundamental to an understanding of political participation in the United States is the association between demographics and voter turnout. According to evidence presented in class and in the text by Leighley and Nagler, what are some principal demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Americans and how are they related to voter turnout (or abstention)? Have any changes occurred from 1972 through recent years?
  2. Do differences in voter turnout among demographic or socioeconomic groups matter? Are there consequential effects in policy or representation due to differences in group turnout? Should we expect to see major political, social, and policy change if turnout was universal? [This is the material focused on Chapter 5 and 6 in Leighley and Nagler–I have not presented much of this in class. Stay tuned Friday!]
  3. What electoral reforms have been introduced among the various states in order to influence voter turnout since the decade of the 1970s? Have these reforms been effective, that is, has turnout increased with state implementation of these reforms? Would you recommend other states to adopt any of these electoral reforms, and why or why not?
  4. How can we, and how should we, define and measure voter turnout? What are some important ideas related to turnout that we should consider (voter registration, ballot roll-off, drop-off) for accurately measuring voter turnout? How does the U.S. compare to other countries in terms of voter turnout?
  5. Why do some people participate in elections while others abstain? What are some theories that explain voter turnout (and abstention)? How would you assess their validity of these theories?