i need answers to these questions 3

31. Describe the structure and function of the spleen, with reference to:

i. White pulp,

ii. Peri-arteriolar lymphoid sheath (PALS),

iii. Red pulp

iiii. Germinal center and follicles

32. Describe the immune function of:

a. T-cells and T-cell sub-population

b. B-cells

c. N-K cells

33. specific markers for T-cells, B-cells and NK-cells

34. Describe the stages in the maturation of B –lymphocytes from pre-B cell to plasma cell

a. Gene rearrangements

b. Acquisition of cell surface markers

c. Antigen dependent and antigen –independent development

d. Activation of mature B-cells

e. Plasma cell development

f. Characteristics of plasma cell

g. Surface markers

35. Describe the stages of T-cell development, maturation and commitment in the thymus and correlate the acquisition of surface markers with the ability to recognize antigens:

i. Gene rearrangements

ii. Double negative thymocytes

iii. Double positive stage

iiii. Positive and negative selection

v. Apoptosis and its role in determining cell populations

36. Differentiate T-lymphocyte subsets in terms of surface markers and function

37. Describe the structure of the T cell receptor (TCR) and its similarities to the immunoglobulin structure.

38. Differentiate between the actions of T cytotoxic (Tc) cells and natural killer (NK–cells)

39. Differentiate between third population or N-K cells and other lymphocytes based on:

40. Discuss the importance of macrophages and dendritic cells in the induction of the immune response

41. Differentiate between cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity

42. Describe the features of the primary and secondary immune response:

a. The phases (lag phase, exponential decline)

b. The first antibody produced

c. The second antibody produces

43. Describe the anamnestic response and correlate it with the ability to “boost “ immunization responses and immunologic memory

44. Define and differentiate between a polyclonal and a monoclonal immune response.

45. List and define the Class I and Class II and Class III antigens of the Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)

46. Explain the inheritance of MHC system in humans including:

a. Location on chromosomes

b. Loci (A, B, C and D (DR, DQ, DP)

c. Co-dominance

d. Polymorphism

e. Alleles

f. Haplotypes

47. Discuss the main function of the MHC proteins in the processing of antigens for recognition by T-cells

48. Describe the structural components of the Class I and Class II antigens

49. Differentiate between Class I and Class II MHC antigens based on:

a. Tissue distribution

b. Structure

c. Function

50. Discuss and correlate the role of the MHC complex in antigen processing and presentation

51. Give examples of diseases associated with specific HLA antigens (e.g., HLA B27.)

52. Define and differentiate between antigens, immunogens, haptens