Please refer to the Discussion Grading Rubric for details regarding how your performance will be assessed. NOTE: Please be certain to read the entire discussion assignment since in some cases there is more than one question to discuss, respond to, or address. Be sure that you have answered the entire question!
This posting should answer the requirements using the course material from weeks 1-8 (not external source material) to support the ideas presented. If you are uncertain as to how to support the ideas presented, go to Content and view the module, Learn How to Support What You Write.
It is important to write concisely, provide the chapter title, chapter heading, page, or paragraph number. Include in-text citations and a reference in a reference list. To see how to cite the eBook, go to Content and view the module, Learn to Use APA. The citation and reference information is on the right-side of the screen.
During the past seven weeks, you have been on a journey to better understand the concept of management and how todayâ€™s and tomorrowâ€™s managers and leaders will need to navigate complexity. This learning activity will help you pull together what you have learned so that you can use it in your careers.
- In this weekâ€™s readings, the idea of the collaborative organization is discussed. How can your organization or an organization that you are familiar with benefit from being a collaborative organization?
- How can using a systems approach help the collaborative organization achieve its goals?
- Briefly describe two management concepts (from different weeks) that you found interesting. Why were these concepts of interest and how can you use apply these concepts to your business career?
- Make sure to support the ideas presented using the course readings and examples.
Instructions for Responses to Classmatesâ€™ Posts
After you have created your initial post, look over the discussion posts of your classmates and give at least two responses to different classmates (one per classmate) as outlined in the Discussion Grading Rubric.
A response posting should be a minimum of one short paragraph. Word totals for these posts should be in the 75â€“100-word range. The goal of your response posts is to extend discussions already taking place or pose new possibilities or ideas not previously voiced. Your goal should be to motivate the group discussion and present a creative approach to the topic. Do not merely agree or disagree, repeating what a classmate stated or what you have already stated. Explain the â€˜why or howâ€™ with supporting evidence and concepts from the course material. Include in-text citations and associated reference within a reference list.
Week 1 Introduction
During this week, students will be introduced to the classical and scientific theories of management. During the Industrial Revolution, we began to see the first real issues that would arise from the factory setting. The need to produce more good at a faster rate of speed began to cause a rise in the number of defects, injuries, worker discontent, etc. Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, and Max Weber were some of the first academicians and industry experts to work toward solutions to each of the issues that began to plague manufacturing. The need to find the best way to manage tasks led to three, at the time, groundbreaking ideas about how to manage not just the personnel but also the tasks.
Additionally, students will learn about organizational theory and the relationship to the role of the 21st century manager. A manager is a person whose job it is to direct the implementation and achievement of a subset of organizational goals. Organizational theory is a field of study that has evolved in the last one hundred years that offers assistance to managers in the way they approach their job in an effort to accomplish the organizationâ€™s vision, mission, goals and objectives.
The 21st-century manager is a person who organizes, executes, and plans the process and production or services of an organization. Traditionally, the role of the manager, as defined by organizational theory, has been the person who sets short-term goals for the organization to execute and perform tasks that include the process, procedure, and production of the organizationâ€™s purpose or vision. The role of the modern manager still includes these tasks but has evolved to include the role of facilitator in the way the manager accomplishes the organizational goals assigned to his or her control.
Who is the manager and what is his or her job in an organization? The managerâ€™s role has traditionally revolved around setting short-term goals for the organization to execute, and performing tasks that include processes, procedures, and production within the organizationâ€™s purpose or vision. The modern role of the manager has evolved to include serving as a facilitator to accomplishing tasks.
- Why It Matters: Introduction to Management
- Primary Functions of Management
- Types of Managers and Their Roles
- The Advantages of Managing People Well
- Putting It Together: Introduction to Management
The study of organizational theory and management has evolved with the changing business landscape. To appreciate the place management theory has in business today, it is important to learn about how the business landscape has evolved and how this evolution has affected the business organization.
- Why It Matters: History of Management
- Scientific Management
- Bureaucratic Management
- Humanistic Management
- Current Developments in Management Practices
- Putting It Together: History of Management
Week 2 Introduction
Fayol defined planning in terms of forecasting future conditions, setting objectives, and developing means to attain objectives. This weeks we will consider the planning function of the POLC framework considering the setting of an organization’s mission and vision, and the planning process to successfully see the vision to fruition including the setting of goals, the objectives necessary to complete the goals and the strategic planning that must be in place to meet the objectives.
An organizationâ€™s future direction is laid out in the definition of the goals it has established. Planning is the process of establishing those goals and aligning the resources available to achieve the accomplishment of those goals. Taking into consideration the available human and physical resources and how to get the most effect from their deployment is what defines the planning process; the first pillar in Fayolâ€™s POLC framework.
Theme 1: What is the planning function and how does it work?
Planning is the way managers and leaders of organizations begin the process laying out the future course of actions. The planning function will lay out how an organization will go forward seeking to meet its vision, as well as who will have responsibilities in the process. It lays out how the resources will be used, whether it be physical or human resources, in the most effective manner. In most cases there will be many plans in place as the organization sets out to bring its vision to life and complete its mission.
In the planning stage, an organization defines the vision and mission statement or set out to redefine the statements if it is going through a major change. Having a well thought out Mission will help employees and the public understand what it is the company stands for and a fully thought out vision will provide a clear indication of what/where the company intends to be in the future. Next comes the formulation of the goals and objectives (which are actionable initiatives), and then evaluation (strategized) against the vision, mission, purpose, etc. Goals and objectives are revisited several times in the planning session and measured by a manager during the lifetime of a company’s existence.
Long-term goals are often created through planning and strategizing. The process begins with the vision and mission of the business. To understand the concepts of vision and mission and their role in the process, you will take the role of the leader and formulate the vision and mission of an organization.
When an organization undergoes any type of significant change; wants to change its image or wants to expand into new industries it may become necessary to redesign its Mission and Vision statements to accommodate the new direction. The organization will want to ensure it remains relevant and maintains market share. Unfortunately, crafting a good Mission and Vision is not as simple as it may seem and can be very difficult. Many organizations have not done a good job of establishing their mission and creating a new vision.
- Why It Matters: Planning and Mission
- Mission, Vision, and Values
- Pros and Cons of Planning
- The Planning Cycle
- Types of Plans and Common Planning Tools
- Putting It Together: Planning and Mission
Theme 2: Strategic Management
The course readings demonstrate that setting goals and objectives are an integral part of the strategy formulation stage. There is also a need for critical thinking in the formulation and evaluation of goals. However, the development of goals cannot occur until the vision and mission statements are known to a manager. Usually the leader(s) of an organization creates the vision and mission statements for the business setting out the long-term goals of the organization (vision) and the way the business should go about achieving the goals (mission). The manager can have a role in the development of the mission and vision statements depending on the size of the business and level of manager. Regardless of whether the vision and mission statements are created by the leader or manager all planners must have a clear understanding of the meaning of the vision and mission and their relation to the planning function.
A successful strategy is essential to opening and sustaining a business. In these readings, you will discover how managers can build an organizational strategy to a company’s competitive advantage.
- Why It Matters: Environments and Strategic Management
- The Role of Strategy in Management
- Common Frameworks for Evaluating the Business Environment
- Common Frameworks for Situational Analysis
- Stages and Types of Strategy
- How Environment Affects Strategy
- Putting It Together: Environments and Strategic Management
Week 3 Introduction
Organizing is the second function of management within the POLC framework. When we consider organizing at a micro level we think of organizing our office space, and we accomplish this by ensuring all our papers are properly filed; our office equipment such as staplers, tape dispensers, pens and pencils, etc., are all readily available and neat. At a macro level managers need to ensure the organizational space is organized. There must be sufficient capital in place; raw materials need to be ordered and delivered; employees need to be hired and trained to do their respective jobs properly and timely; and physical capital needs to be acquired and placed accordingly for use by the employees. A good organizational structure will need to be in place to ensure the proper allocation of all physical and human resources to meet the mission. As the organization grows and more functions come into play, the ability to continually reassess the organization and then reallocate resources is a critical skill.
The organizing function is where management synchronizes and combines the resources of the organization (people, capital, and physical) to complete the goals set out in the planning stage. All three of these resources are critical for attaining results.
To better appreciate the depth of the organizing function, visit the links and topics below. Try to discover your professional standing and roles in your respective organizations as you consider these topics.
Theme 1: Organizational Structures
- Why It Matters: Organizational Structures
- The Purpose of Organization
- Common Organizational Structures
- Factors Impacting Organizational Design
- Current Trends in Organization and Job Design
- Putting It Together: Organizational Structures
Theme 2: Organizational Culture and Diversity
- Why It Matters: Culture and Diversity
- Organizational Culture
- Key Dimensions of Organizational Culture
- Influences on Organizational Culture
- Cultural Change
- Employee Diversity
- Putting It Together: Culture and Diversity
Week 4 Introduction
Over the past several weeks you have discovered that there are many facets to managing the resources of a business to accomplish its established goals. One of the more critical resources to manage is the human resource. Human resource management requires skills that must be fostered and developed for the manager to accomplish the goals and objectives that will achieve the companyâ€™s vision. A managerâ€™s ability to lead is critical. Fostering relationships with employees and understanding how each person fits into the companyâ€™s plan are critical. Leaders set direction and inspire those who follow them, yet they must still deploy management skills to guide people in the right direction and in the most efficient way.
When Henri Fayol first released his functions of management there were five pillars he considered. Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, and Controlling. A more modern approach is to take the Commanding and Coordinating pillars and discuss them in a modern approach to Leading. Managers can no long expect to give an order and have them followed simply due to the nature of the manager or leaders authority. Todayâ€™s managers must be able to help their employees to want to see the mission and vision of the organization fulfilled. To do this, a manager will need to consider three critical components: Motivate employees; create influence over employees; and form effective groups.
We have discovered over the past several weeks that there are many facets to managing the resources of a business to accomplish the established goals. One of the more critical resources to manage is the Human resource. The management of the human resource requires skills that must be fostered and developed for the manager to accomplish the goals and objectives laid out which will accomplish the vision of the company. A managerâ€™s ability to lead is critical. The fostering of relationships with the employees and understanding how each person fits in the companyâ€™s plan is critical. Leaders set direction and inspire those who follow them, yet they must still deploy management skills to guide their people in the right direction, in the most efficient way.
Theme 1: What is leading?
Professor Warren G. Bennis stated that â€œleaders are people who do the right thing; managers are people who do things right.â€ It is true that when we manage we must ensure processes are followed safely and accurately to attain the highest possible efficiency, but we also must remember to set the tone for how our employees will go about doing their jobs. Leaders set that tone by being the example of how to interact within the organization.
- Why It Matters: Leadership
- What Makes an Effective Leader?
- Effective vs. Poor Leadership
- Situational Theories of Leadership
- Transformational and Transactional Theories of Leadership
- Putting It Together: Leadership
Theme 2: The manager must be able to make decisions, solve problems, communicate, motivate employees, and lead teams toward the completion of tasks. This is often done as part of the leading function. This week students learn about leading and motivating employees.
- Needs-Based Theories of Motivation
- Process-Based Theories of Motivation
- Job Characteristics that Affect Motivation
- Goal-Setting Theory
- Reinforcement Theory
- Managerâ€™s Role in Promoting Motivation
- Putting It Together: Motivation
Week 5 Introduction
This week the discussion of leading continues. In making decisions, managers must communicate. Leaders need to be skilled communicators as they build relationships within the organization at all levels and outside the organization with various stakeholders such as local communities. In today’s global business environment, leaders must be able to communicate on a global scale.
Theme 1: The manager must be able to make decisions, solve problems, communicate, motivate employees, and lead teams toward the completion of tasks. This is often done as part of the leading function. This week students learn about leading and communication.
- Why It Matters: Communication
- Communication and Management
- Typical Communication Flows
- Barriers to Effective Communication
- Channels of Business Communication
- Putting It Together: Communication
- Why It Matters: Decision Making
- Barriers to Individual Decision Making and Styles of Decision Making
- Rational Decision Making vs. Other Types of Decision Making
Theme 2: We are working in an environment where constant change has become the norm in business.
Change is the natural process any organization will go through in todayâ€™s fast moving marketplace. The world as we know it is constantly undergoing change but so is technology, customer trends, world affairs, and the economy. The organization that is not willing to adapt to this ever-changing business climate and embrace frequent change will be left like the dinosaurs; extinct. When it is time for your organization to make a change you will need to have people in place that can help not just the organization navigate through the complexities, but also to help the personnel understand the need for change and embrace the challenges that may lie ahead during the process. This person will be your Change Agent, and they will be a critical component.
We discovered the need for change and having good personnel in place to help navigate the challenges during change this week; but that ability to help others navigate change stems from developing strong communication skills.
- Adapting and Innovating
- Technology and Innovation
- Managing Change For Organizations
- Managing Change For Employees
Week 6 Introduction
Theme 1: Groups, Teams and Teamwork
- Why It Matters: Groups, Teams and Teamwork
- Common Group Behavior
- Types of Teams
- Building Effective Teams
- The Five Stages of Team Development
- Conflict in Teams
- Putting It Together: Groups, Teams and Teamwork
Theme 2: Human Resource Management
- Why It Matters: Human Resource Management
- Purpose of Human Resource Management
- Laws Affecting Human Resource Practices
- Recruiting and Selecting Qualified Job Applicants
- Employee Orientation and Training
- Employee Development and Performance Evaluations
- Employee Compensation, Incentive, and Benefits Strategies
- Employee Separation and Termination
- Current Trends and Challenges in HR Management
- Putting It Together: Human Resource Management
Week 7 Introduction
In the previous weeks, we laid out the framework for developing an organizational plan, organizing the resources involved with the plan, and establishing how a leader will lead the organization toward completion of the plan. This week we will look at the steps for e